The vertical machining center is suitable for parts that are complex in processing, have many processes, require high requirements, require multiple types of ordinary machine tools and many tool holders, and can be machined after multiple times of clamping and adjustment. The main objects of the processing are box-type parts, complex curved surfaces, special-shaped parts, disc-plate parts and special processing.
Box-type parts generally refer to parts that have more than one hole system, have a cavity inside, and have a certain proportion in the length, width, and height directions. These parts are used in many industries such as machine tools, automobiles, and aircraft manufacturing. Box parts generally need to carry out multi-station hole system and plane processing, and the tolerance requirements are relatively high, especially the geometrical tolerance requirements are strict, usually through milling, drilling, expanding, boring, reaming, boring, tapping and other processes. It requires more tools, it is difficult to process on ordinary machine tools, the number of tooling sets is high, the cost is high, the processing cycle is long, it needs to be clamped and corrected many times, the number of manual measurement is many, the tool must be changed frequently during processing, the process is difficult to formulate. More importantly, accuracy is difficult to guarantee.
For machining centers that process box-type parts, when there are many processing stations and parts that need multiple rotation angles of the table, the horizontal boring and milling machining center is generally selected. When the processing station is small and the span is not large, the vertical machining center can be selected to process from one end.
Complex surfaces play a particularly important role in the mechanical manufacturing industry, especially in the aerospace industry. Complex machining surfaces are difficult or impossible to accomplish with ordinary machining methods. In China, the traditional method is to use precision casting, and it is conceivable that its precision is low. Complex surface parts such as: various impellers, wind deflectors, spherical surfaces, various curved forming dies, propellers and propellers for underwater vehicles, and some other shapes of freeform surfaces. These parts can be machined from machining centers. More typical of the following:
①Cam, cam mechanism
As a basic component for mechanical information storage and transmission, it is widely used in various automatic machines. Such parts have various curved disc cams, cylindrical cams, conical cams, barrel cams, end cams, and the like. Machining such parts can be based on the complexity of the cam, three-axis, four-axis linkage or five-axis linkage machining center.
Such parts are commonly found in aero-engine compressors, oxygen generator expansion machines, single-screw air compressors, etc. For such profiles, four-axis or more machining centers can be used to complete this type of surface.
Such as injection molds, rubber molds, vacuum forming plastic molds, refrigerator foam molds, pressure casting molds, precision casting molds, etc. The machining center is used to process the mold. Due to the high concentration of the process, the finishing of the key parts such as the movable mold and the static mold is basically completed in one installation, which can reduce the cumulative error of the size and reduce the repairing workload. At the same time, the mold has strong reproducibility and good interchangeability. The amount of machining residue to the fitter is small, and wherever the tool can be reached, it is done by machining as much as possible, so that the workload of the mold fitter is mainly polishing.
Machining center milling is available. Three-axis milling can only be used with a ball-end milling cutter for close machining, and the efficiency is low. Five-axis milling can use the end mill as the envelope surface to approximate the spherical surface. When machining complex surfaces with machining centers, the programming workload is large, and most of them require automatic programming techniques.
Shaped parts are irregularly shaped parts, and most of them require point, line and surface multi-station mixing processing. The rigidity of the profiled parts is generally poor, the pinch deformation is difficult to control, and the machining accuracy is difficult to guarantee. Even some of the machining parts of some parts are difficult to complete with ordinary machine tools. When processing with the machining center, reasonable process measures should be taken, one or two times of clamping, and the multi-process or the whole process content should be completed by the characteristics of multi-station, line and surface mixing processing in the machining center.
(4)Plate, sleeve, plate parts
a keyway, or a radial hole, or a hole system with a distributed end face, a curved sleeve or a shaft part, such as a flanged bushing, a keyed part with a keyway or a square head, and a more porous Machined board parts, such as various motor covers. Disc parts with distributed holes and curved surfaces on the end face should be selected from vertical machining centers and optional horizontal machining centers with radial holes.
After mastering the functions of the machining center, with a certain tooling and special tools, the machining center can be used to complete some special work, such as lettering, engraving and engraving on the metal surface; loading the spindle on the machining center. Frequency electric spark power supply can perform wire scanning surface quenching on metal surface; high-speed grinding head can be installed in machining center to realize small modulus involute bevel gear grinding and various curves and curved surfaces.